Monday, June 30, 2014

1976: Trinity by Leon Uris

The Author:

Leon Uris (1924-2003) appears one other time on the annual best-seller list, for 1959's Exodus.    Leon Uris (1924-2003) was born in Baltimore, Maryland.  His parents were Jewish immigrants from eastern Europe.  Uris never finished high school, opting to drop out and enlist in the Marine Corps during his senior year.  He served in combat in Guadalcanal.  After the war, Uris moved to San Francisco with his wife, also a former Marine.  While there, he worked for a local newspaper.  In 1953, his first novel, Battle Cry, was published to huge popular success.  From there he was given a job in the story department of Warner Brothers Studios.

      In 1955, he released his second novel, The Angry Hills and, in 1956, penned the screenplay for Gunfight at the O.K. Corral.  In 1958, he published Exodus, which became a runaway success, becoming the first of two annual bestsellers on this list and earning him a considerable fan following. In 1961, Uris released Mila 18.  Trinity was published in 1976, and was inspired by a trip Uris and his third wife took to photograph modern Ireland.  Uris kept writing until his death in 2003.  He was married three times over the course of his life and had five children.  He died of renal failure.

The Book:

1st edition cover

Length: 817 pages
Subject/Genre: Irish history/historical fiction

Trinity primarily follows Conor Larkin, a poor Irish Catholic living in mid-to-late 19th century Ireland.  Much of the beginning of the novel is spent detailing the wretched conditions the Irish were forced to live in at the hands of the British, the local culture of small town Irishmen, and the history of attempted rebellion against the British.  Conor's story is the typical hero's journey of the historical fiction of an oppressed people.  Through personal strength and courage, Conor rises to fight the British rule as a leader of men.    

Published in 1976, and detailing a time period over a hundred years past, Trinity was still topical when it was written.  The period between the late 1960s and 1998 in Northern Ireland is referred to as The Troubles.  Violent attacks and acts of retribution were frequent between Irish Republican Army (IRA) splinter groups and British occupation forces, and between different splinter groups as well. The basis of the groups' attacks was the continued occupation of Northern Ireland by the British and a desire for Irish self-rule.  The conflict was a major subject in the news for decades.  The violence hit it's height in the 1970s, around the time Trinity was written and published.  

The novel puts the modern conflict in its historical context, as part of the Irish's centuries long attempt at overthrowing their colonizers.  When researching Uris, claims that he was merely a propagandist pop up frequently, mainly pointing to the one-sided good vs. evil, freedom vs. tyranny approach to the stories.  While I agree that Trinity is certainly one-sided, I don't think it would be propaganda inasmuch as it is an attempt to merely demonstrate the opposite side's view.  Trinity is also a product of the time it was written in, and functions as an attempt to explain and understand the perspective and history of the bad guys (i.e. IRA sects).

As far as the book itself goes, I feel Uris, like Michener and Hailey, gets too bogged down in detail.  Uris tries to function almost as a documentarian of 19th century Ireland, and the balance between providing mountains of information and storytelling is difficult to maintain for extended periods of time, leading to a narrative that moves in spurts.     

That said, if you are the type of person who likes your historical fiction long, winding, and full of detail, you'll probably like Trinity.  If you like Trinity, Uris wrote a sequel to it 1995, titled Redemption.

Bestsellers of 1976:

1. Trinity by Leon Uris
2. Sleeping Murder by Agatha Christie
3. Dolores by Jacqueline Susann
4. Storm Warning by Jack Higgins
5. The Deep by Peter Benchley
6. 1876 by Gore Vidal
7. Slapstick or Lonesome No More! by Kurt Vonnegut
8. The Lovely Lady by Harold Robbins
9. Touch Not the Cat by Mary Stewart
10. A Stranger in the Mirror by Sidney Sheldon

Also published in 1976:

Will You Please Be Quiet, Please by Raymond Carver
Ordinary People by Judith Guest
Roots: The Saga of an American Family by Alex Haley


"Leon Uris." Contemporary Authors Online. Detroit: Gale, 2007. Literature Resource Center

Uris, Leon. Trinity. 1976. New York: Bantam, 1977. Print.

Monday, June 23, 2014

1975: Ragtime by E. L. Doctorow

The Author:

Edgar Lawrence Doctorow (1931-      ) was born in the Bronx.  He later studied philosophy at Kenyon College and briefly attended Columbia University for graduate studies in English drama before being drafted into the military, where he served from 1953-1955.  While overseas, he met and married Helen Setzer.  Upon returning the the U.S., he worked as a manuscript reader for Columbia Pictures, then as an editor for the New American Library from 1959-64.  In 1960, he published his first novel, a western titled Welcome to Hard Times.  In 1964, Doctorow became the editor-in-chief of Dial Press and in 1966 published his second novel, this time sci-fi, called Big as Life.  It wasn't until 1971 that Doctorow wrote his first historical fiction novel, The Book of Daniel, about the Rosenberg trial.  The book was a critical success and was a finalist for the National Book Award.  In 1975, Doctorow published Ragtime, his most popular book, which also won the National Book Critics Circle Award.   Since then, Doctorow has published eight novels, three short story collections, and two books of essays.  is most recent novel, Andrew's Brain, was published earlier this year.

The Book:

Length: 334 pages
Genre/Subject: Historical fiction/Early 20th Century New York

Ragtime takes place over the course of the opening decade and a half of the twentieth century.  It focuses on three main fictional groups, the unnamed upper middle class white family living the American dream (named simply Father, Mother, and Mother's Younger Brother), a poor Jewish immigrant (Tateh) and his daughter, and a black musician from Harlem named Coalhouse Walker.  But what's remarkable about Ragtime is the extent to which real historical personages appear in the story, most notably socialite Evelyn Nesbit, anarchist Emma Goldman, magician Harry Houdini, and industrialist J. P. Morgan.  This puts aside the brief appearances by everyone from Archduke Franz Ferdinand to Henry Ford to Theodore Dreiser.  At one point, Freud and Jung take a boat through the Tunnel of Love on Coney Island.

Doctorow raises all the standard but relevant social issues.  Nesbit and Goldman discuss gender, while Coalhouse and Mother's Younger Brother consider race, and Tateh ponders class in American society.  Yet despite the prevalence of these themes in American literature, Doctorow makes them seem fresh, at least in presentation.  One of the most memorable scenes in the novel takes place between Ford and Morgan, sitting down to discuss reincarnation and the idea of Great Men.  Such a meeting almost certainly never happened, and is just one instance of the mixing of the historical and fictional.  However, Doctorow has said:

     "I'm under the illusion that all of my inventions are quite true. For instance, in Ragtime, I'm
     satisfied that everything I made up about Morgan and Ford is true, whether it happened or not.
     Perhaps truer because it didn't happen."    

I think Ragtime is the first postmodern novel on the list.  While novels like Elmer Gantry or Valley of the Dolls can be seen as Roman á clef's, Doctorow makes a concerted effort to make reality and fiction indistinguishable, to draw a line between truth and fact.  It wasn't merely Doctorow that was making massive changes to historical fiction and the fact/truth divide, rather we can see Ragtime as a more accessible example of what was going on.  On the one hand, you had the continued rise of New Journalism.  Hunter S. Thompson's Fear and Loathing: On the Campaign Trail '72 was called "the least factual, but most accurate account" of the election.  Pynchon's Gravity's Rainbow pushes the border between psychological and  magical realism, all in the historical context of World War II.  Ragtime only slightly precedes Robert Coover's The Public Burning, a novel about the Rosenberg trial narrated by Richard Nixon.  While Modernism is usually tied to disillusionment, postmodernism could (in my opinion) be tied to hysteria, that is to say, disillusionment to the point of humor or madness. Note that this is not a negative judgment.

Ragtime was adapted to the screen in 1981.

The film starred James Cagney but had a strangely eclectic cast, with an uncredited appearance by Jack Nicholson, a role filled by The Naked and the Dead author Norman Mailer, and before-they-were-famous performances by Jeff Daniels and Samuel L. Jackson.
In 1998, Ragtime was adapted to the stage.  The musical was nominated for thirteen Tony awards, and won four, losing Best Musical to The Lion King.

Unlike many books so far on the list, Ragtime has maintained much of its popularity.  It was placed at #86 on Modern Library's list of the 100 best books of the 20th century, as well as TIME's 100 best novels since 1923.

Ragtime is definitely worth reading if you like historical fiction, or even if you're just lukewarm on the genre.  It doesn't tread much new ground with on social issues, but it comes at them from a new angle.

Bestselling novels of 1975:

1. Ragtime by E. L. Doctorow
2. The Moneychangers by Arthur Hailey
3. Curtain by Agatha Christie
4. Looking for Mr. Goodbar by Judith Rossner
5. The Choirboys by Joseph Wambaugh
6. The Eagle Has Landed by Jack Higgins
7. The Greek Treasure by Irving Stone
8. The Great Train Robbery by Michael Crichton
9. Shōgun by James Clavell
10. Humboldt's Gift by Saul Bellow

Also Published in 1975:
The Book of Sand by Jorge Luis Borges
J R by William Gaddis


Doctorow, E. L. Ragtime. 1975. New York: Fawcett Crest, 1990. Print.

Mchugh, Frank K. "Doctorow, E.L. (1931- )." Benet's Reader's Encyclopedia of American 
     Literature. George B. Perkins, Barbara Perkins, and Phillip Leininger. Vol. 1. New York: 
     HarperCollins, 1991. 266. Literature Resource Center. Web.

Monday, June 16, 2014

1974: Centennial by James Michener

The Author:

James Michener (1907-1997) has already appeared on this blog for 1965's The Source.  Michere was adopted by a Quaker from Doylestown, Pennsylvania.  He later attended Swarthmore college, studying English and Psychology, graduating with honors in 1929.  After spending a couple abroad, Michener returned to Pennsylvania to teach high school English.  In 1935, he married his first wife, Patti Koon, then earned his Masters and taught briefly at Harvard before becoming an editor for Macmillan Publishers.   

Michener served in the South Pacific during WWII.  His experiences there provided the basis for his first novel, Tales of the South Pacific (1947), which won the Pulitzer for fiction in 1948 and was adapted by Rodgers and Hammerstein for the stage, under the title South Pacific.  In 1948, Michener divorced Koon and married Vange Nord.  Michener appeared in the top 10 annual bestsellers list fifteen times between 1951 and 1992, taking the top spot four times.  In 1955, he divorced Nord and married Mari Sabusawa.  In 1977, Michener received the Presidential Medal of Freedom.   He died of kidney failure in 1997. 

The Book:

Length: 1086 pages
Genre/Subject: Historical Fiction/The American Midwest

Centennial is about the eponymous fictional small town in Colorado.  The first part tells us the framing device: a major magazine is doing a piece on the typical American small town, and they've asked a historian to do his own investigation for the purposes of fact checking.  As such, each chapter ends with a note to the editors, clearing up any possibly incorrect or speculative historical elements of the preceding chapter.  In true Michener fashion, this story of a small town doesn't start with the town's naming in 1876, or the history of the Native Americans living in the area before that, or even with the dinosaurs that roamed the Earth millions of years ago.  Michener starts the story of Centennial, Colorado with the formation of the Earth's crust.     

This is one of my issues with Michener, and it's largely a matter of personal taste.  After a brief introduction to the concept of the book, he spends over a hundred pages on geology and evolutionary biology.  Do we really need what is essentially a short story depicting the life of a particular buffalo living hundreds of thousands of years before its species had contact with humans?  On the one hand, horses, buffalo, beavers (and, yes, even the giant Diplodocus), and the unique landscape of the area are of great importance to the history of the area and the story itself, but is this too much? I'm a big fan of going on tangents, but you have the tangent before you have the thing it's tangential to.   

In my review of Hailey's Wheels, I compared Hailey, Michener, and Uris. During my research for that post, I came across a review from The New Republic which I think holds true to Michener as well.

     [His] most devoted readers, one senses, are the sort who don't read novels except those 
     certified as “informative” and “educational”; whose highest praise for the novels they really 
     cherish is that they are “very educational.”

While today we tend to think of historical fiction as factually dubious at best (thanks, Dan Brown), people like Michener treated the genre as a means to popularize history.  Being informative was at least as important as being entertaining, and the goal was to give you as complete an understanding of the subject as possible. Personally, I've always been of the opinion that if I want to read a book about history, I'd pick up a history book.  This isn't to say that novels can't be informative or have a significant non-fiction component (cf. In Cold Blood).  The problem is that an attempt to tell us everything can weigh the work down.  But once again, the historical meandering just isn't the kind of thing I like, and there's no accounting for taste.

Due to it's popularity, NBC made Centennial into a twelve-part miniseries in 1979, starring Raymond Burr and Barbara Carrera, as well as Andy Griffith and pre-James Bond Timothy Dalton. 

Like I've said, Michener goes to great lengths to be as historically accurate as possible.  If you like historical fiction and very long books, Michener would be a good fit.

Bestselling Novels of 1974:

1. Centennial by James Michener
2. Watership Down by Richard Adams
3. Jaws by Peter Benchley
4. Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy by John le Carré
5. Something Happened by Joseph Heller
6. The Dogs of War by Frederick Forsyth
7. The Pirate by Harold Robbins
8. I Heard the Owl Call My Name by Margaret Craven
9. The Seven-Per-Cent Solution by Nicholas Meyer
10. The Fan Club by Irving Wallace

Also Published in 1974:

The Lost Honour of Katharina Blum by Heinrich Böll
Enderby's End by Anthony Burgess
Flow My Tears, the Policeman Said by Philip K. Dick
Fear of Flying by Erica Jong
The Dispossessed by Ursula K. Le Guin


Maloff, Saul. "Troubadour of Free Enterprise." The New Republic 165.17 (23 Oct. 1971): 21-22. 
     Rpt. in Literature Resource Center. Detroit: Gale, 2014. Literature Resource Center. Web.

Michener, James. Centennial. 1974. New York: Fawcett Crest, 1989.

Wednesday, June 11, 2014

ERB: Stephen King vs. Edgar Allan Poe

Last April, I posted Epic Rap Battles of History's Dr. Seuss vs. William Shakespeare.  Well, Nice Peter and Epic Lloyd have done it again, this time pitting Edgar Allan Poe against Stephen King:

Monday, June 9, 2014

1972-3: Jonathan Livingston Seagull by Richard Bach

The Author:

Richard Bach (1936-     ) was born in Oak Park, Illinois.  In 1955, he attended Long Beach State College (now California State University, Long Beach), before joining the joining the US Air Force as a pilot.  In 1957, he married his first wife, Bette Franks, with whom he had six children.  (They divorced in 1971.)  His first three books were non-fiction works about aviation: Stranger to the Ground (1963), Biplane (1966), and Nothing by Chance: A Gypsy Pilot's Adventures in Modern America (1969).

His first and most popular novel, Jonathan Livingston Seagull, was published in 1970 with only a limited run (the publisher was not optimistic about its success).  From here he had a long (and continuing) career in fiction, his next novel, 1977's Illusions: The Adventures of a Reluctant Messiah placing on the top ten annual bestseller's list in 1977 and 1978.  Bach has continued writing fiction and non-fiction up to the present, his most recent book being 2014's Illusions II: The Adventures of  a Reluctant Student.

The Book:

Length: 127 pages
Genre/Subject: Fable/Self-Improvement

Jonathan Livingston Seagull is about a seagull named, well, Jonathan Livingston Seagull.  Unlike the rest of  his flock, Jonathan loves flying for its own sake.  This attitude ends up annoying the flock, who are only concerned with the day-to-day tedium of catching fish, and Jonathan ends up being exiled from the flock.  In solitude, he learns to fly faster and higher than any other seagull alive.  Then he dies, but he's escorted by two golden seagulls to the next plane of existence.  It turns out that there's a reincarnation system, where a love of flying for its own sake gets you to the next level.  Eventually, Jonathan learns to fly instantly, to any point in space or time (because the only thing between the rest of the universe and you is your own inhibitions).  He decides to go back to the first plane and teach the seagulls there.  He becomes a Jesus figure, complete with disciples, raising the dead, and persecution from among his own people.   

The whole thing is interspersed with photographs of seagulls.  That is to say, there are nearly as many pages of photographs as there are of text.    

Bach himself said that there wasn't much of an underlying message to the novel besides to find what you love and go at with everything you've got, but I'm not one for the intentional fallacy.  Unsurprisingly, this book has been seen as everything from a simple self-improvement story to spiritual text.     

Honestly, to me it seems very dated to the 60s-70s period, with the pseudo-spiritual appropriation of Eastern belief systems (consider popular figures like John Lennon, as well as the resurgence of Siddhartha among young readers, the burgeoning popularity of transcendental meditation, among numerous other trends), combined with a pretty stinted Christian aspect, and a message of 'society just needs to focus on what it loves' message.  Don't get me wrong, it seems to be completely in earnest, but I think the entire thing can be summed up in an inspirational poster.  

I'm being a bit cynical.  Bach, after all, never claimed to be some spiritual leader, and was in fact dismayed at the amount of mail he got from people asking what the novel was really about.  Is it any wonder his next novel is about a man who, after being proclaimed a messiah by the public, gets tired of it and starts a career selling biplane rides?  I try not to grudge people their joys, and while I may find the novel trite, someone who hasn't been exposed to any of the philosophies above mentioned could find it revelatory.   

Jonathan Livingston Seagull's place on this list is interesting for two reasons.  1. It was the bestseller for two consecutive years. 2. It was first published in 1970.  Like I mentioned in the author section, the publishers of JLS didn't have much faith in it, and only printed 7,500 copies in the initial run.  It became popular quickly, and as the book wasn't immediately available, it became mysterious and desirable.  The media kept reporting on its popularity which, in a sort of positive feedback loop, caused it to be more popular, causing more reporting of its popularity, etc. etc.  (This is a tried and true technique.  Consider the unaccountable popularity of last year's film The Purge.  At least the reporters of JLS waited until the book was released to start publicizing it.)   

So of course there was a film. 

The film used remote control planes designed to look like pigeons for many of the aerial shots, was nominated for best cinematography and best editing, and had a soundtrack by Neil Diamond.  Those are the high points.  The film was almost universally panned, to quote Roger Ebert:

      It is based, to begin with, on a book so banal that it had to be sold to adults; kids would have 
      seen through it. "The Little Engine That Could" is, by comparison, a work of some depth and 
      ambition. Consider that the movie made from the book has now been made the object of a 
      lawsuit by the book's author and you have some measure of the depths to which we sink as 
      Jonathan dives.

Bach did, in fact, sue Paramount due to the discrepancies between the book and film.  It turns out the director had a clause in his contract requiring any changes to be accepted by Bach, which wasn't honored, leading to court-ordered rewrites.  Not only did Bach sue, but Neil Diamond sued, claiming that too much of his music was cut from the film.  All in all, it was a disaster.    

I'm at a loss of who to recommend this book to.  Anyone who is reading a lit blog with an emphasis on the history of popular literature will probably be familiar enough with everything in the book to find it pretty lackluster.  I rarely use this summation paragraph to recommend other books, but I'm going to do that now. It's Julio Cortazar's From the Observatory (1972). Like Jonathon Livingston Seagull, it's short (in the 100-120 page range) and uses photographs (in this case of a bizarre 18th-century royal Indian observatory).  There isn't much of a narrative to it, and it's been called everything from a novel to a book of poetry.  As pretentious as it may sound, it's more like a long philosophical musing on man's place in the universe, examined through the constructs of this observatory and the life cycle of eels. It's a pretty neat book.

Bestsellers of 1972:

1. Jonathan Livingston Seagull by Richard Bach
2. August 1914 by Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn
3. The Odessa File by Frederick Forsyth
4. The Day of the Jackal by Frederick Forsyth
5. The Word by Irving Wallace
6. The Winds of War by Herman Wouk
7. Captains and the Kings by Taylor Caldwell
8. Two from Galilee by Marjorie Holmes
9. My Name is Asher Lev by Chaim Potok
10. Semi-Tough by Dan Jenkins

Bestsellers of 1973:

1. Jonathan Livingston Seagull by Richard Bach
2. Once Is Not Enough by Jacqueline Susann
3. Breakfast of Champions by Kurt Vonnegut
4. The Odessa File by Frederick Forsyth
5. Burr by Gore Vidal
6. The Hollow Hills by Mary Stewart
7. Evening in Byzantium by Irwin Shaw
8. The Matlock Paper by Robert Ludlum
9. The Billion Dollar Sure Thing by Paul E. Erdman
10. The Honorary Consul by Graham Greene

Also Published in 1972 & 1973:

Watership Down by Richard Adams
Invisible Cities by Italo Calvino
The Princess Bride by William Goldman
The Stepford Wives by Ira Levin
Child of God by Cormac McCarthy
Sula by Toni Morrison
Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance by Robert Pirsig
Gravity's Rainbow by Thomas Pynchon
Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas by Hunter S. Thompson


Bach, Richard. Jonathan Livingston Seagull. 1970. New York: Avon, 1973. Print.
"Jonathan Livingston Seagull." Roger Ebert Reviews. Ebert Digital LLC. Web.
"Richard Bach." Contemporary Authors Online. Detroit: Gale, 2006. Literature Resource 
     Center. Web. 

Wednesday, June 4, 2014

An Interview with Arthur Conan Doyle

Sir Arthur Conan Doyle is a difficult man to understand. He created Sherlock Holmes, one of the most enduring characters in popular fiction, and redefined an entire genre in a way that's still felt over a century later.  The mystery genre became a matter of rational inquiry and deductive reasoning.  Which is why people are often surprised to discover Doyle's later obsession with the supernatural.  Doyle was friends with Houdini, who spent many years debunking fraudulent mediums and mystics.  Doyle and Houdini had a falling out when Doyle refused to concede that Houdini did not have supernatural powers, and was merely an illusionist, despite Houdini's explanations.  

While the rational Holmes and the mystic Doyle may seem irreconcilable to us, Doyle didn't see it that way.  Embedded here is a 1927 film interview with Doyle, where he explains the origins of Holmes and his own interests in spiritualism.

Monday, June 2, 2014

1971: Wheels by Arthur Hailey

The Author:

Arthur Hailey (1920-2004) has appeared once on this list already, for 1968's bestselling-novel, Airport.  Born in England, Hailey dropped out of high school due to financial stress, later joining the Royal Air Force during World War II.  In 1947, he moved to Canada and later gained dual citizenship.  

He went on to have a long and successful career in film, television, and publishing, appearing on the top ten annual bestsellers list five times and taking the number one spot twice.

The Book:

Wheels is to the automobile industry what Airport is to aviation.  While there are many subplots, dealing with everything from race to the artist's dilemma, the real protagonist is the automobile industry itself, in all its flawed grandeur.  Overall, it sees the auto industry on the verge of bigger and better things, while still calling it out on its failings (e.g. unethical salesman, management issues, etc.).  

While Wheels certainly benefited from Hailey's previous successes, its popularity can be delved into more.  I find Hailey similar to Michener and Uris, even though the latter are historical fiction writers.  All three have plenty of character subplots, but their stories are not about the characters.  Michener writes about the land, Uris about political and social climates, and Hailey about industries.  Perhaps one reason I find Hailey so dry is that he's trying to be educational.  People like Hailey, Michener, and Uris used fiction to illustrate their extensive research.  So the question is why did this type of novel become popular at this point in time, that is to say, the late 60s-ealry 70s?  As soon as I asked myself that, I remembered David Foster Wallace's idea of the "vocational travelogue":

"'Vocational Travelogue' is a shorthand way of acknowledging that for a long time one reason people used to read fiction was for a kind of imaginative tourism to places and cultures that they'd never really get to see...modern tech has also created such extreme vocational specialization that today few people are in a position to know much about any professional field other than their own; and thus that a certain amount of fiction's 'touristic' function now consists in giving readers dramatized access to the nuts and bolts of different professional disciplines and specialties."

In 1978, Wheels was adapted into a miniseries starring Rock Hudson:

This is the best image I could find

As far as Hailey goes, you know what you're going to get.  If you are interested in the auto industry of the late 60s and early 70s, Wheels is for you.  Otherwise, you can skip it.

Bestselling novels of 1971:

1. Wheels by Arthur Hailey
2. The Exorcist by William Blatty
3. The Passions of the Mind by Irving Stone
4. The Day of the Jackal by Frederick Forsyth
5. The Betsy by Harold Robbins
6. Message from Malaga by Helen MacInnes
7. The Winds of War by Herman Wouk
8. The Drifters by James Michener
9. The Other by Tom Tryon
10. Rabbit Redux by John Updike

Also Published in 1971:

Post Office by Charles Bukowski
Grendel by John Gardner
Being There by Jerzy Kosinski
August 1914 by Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn


  • Hailey, Arthur. Wheels. Garden City, N.Y: Doubleday, 1971. Print.
Wallace, David Foster. "Rhetoric and the Math Melodrama." Science 22 December 2000: pages 
     2263-2267. Web.